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What Is Charcoal?

Charcoal is a kind of residue made by wood or saw dust by burning them in the very hot ovens in the absence of oxygen. It is also called wood char. Charcoal consists of carbon and some ash content.



Applications of Charcoal


In Shang and Spring and Autumn periods, people use charcoal to smelt ironware and observe climate change according to its hygroscopicity.
But in nowadays, charcoal is mostly used as living fuels, metal smelting, fuel of food and light industry, reducing agent of electro smelting, covering agent to protect metal from being oxidized. It can also be used as raw materials of SO2 and activated carbon in chemical industry. It can be used to filter water, discolor liquids and make gunpowder.
Charcoal is widely used in grinding, painting, makeup, medicals, gunpowder, carburization, powder metallurgy and other fields in our daily life.



Physical Properties of Charcoal

The main ingredient of charcoal is carbon. Charcoal has low as content and the calorific value is about 27.21~33.49Mj/KG. And charcoal also contains small amount of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other elements. The ingredients have little relevance to seeds of trees; it mainly depends on the final carbonization temperature.
Charcoal belongs to hydrophobicity substance with the ash content within 6%. The hole occupies more than 7% volume of charcoal and the percentage is usually 1.3~1.4. The calorific value of charcoal depends on the carbonized conditions and it is about 8000 kilocalories/KG.
The reducing capacity of charcoal is larger than coke. Charcoal has large amount of micropores and transitional pores, which make it has larger specific surface value and the oil tar in the pore has better adsorption property after it is eliminated. It can produce carbon dioxide when completely combusting with oxygen. Charcoal won’t produce the poisonous gas carbon monoxide.


Preparation Method

There are two basic methods to produce charcoal.
1.Burning in the Kiln
Build the kiln with earth; put the wood in the kiln and then fire the wood for several hours.
2.Destructive Distillation
It is also called destructive distillation of wood.

Raw Materials to Make Charcoal

1.Hard broadleaf charcoal.
It is made mainly by hard broadleaf timbers and betula, such as fagus longipetiolata, birch, german oak, Castanopsis sclerophylla, elm, etc.
2.Broadleaf charcoal.
It is a kind of charcoal burned by broadleaf and soft leaf timber, such as poplar, willow, Talia, etc.
3.Pine charcoal
It is made by pine and other coniferous timbers, such as masson pine, pinus koraiensis, spruce, etc.
According to the timber tree and non-timber tree, charcoal can be divided into different types.
The first non-timber tree is mainly used for civil use, called firewood.
The second timber tree is mainly used industrial wood processing industry, called fuel wood forest.
There also has bamboo charcoal made by bamboo and kernel charcoal made by kernel and shells.




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